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译文:娜塔栎--品种介绍
发布时间: 2017-10-31  浏览次数:2678   发布者:瑶琪园林 分享到:

Nuttall Oak  娜塔栎


Fagaceae -- Beech family 山毛榉科山毛榉属(译者注:因分类系统不同,中国通常分类为:壳斗科栎属)

T. H. Filer, Jr. (作者姓名)

Nuttall oak (Quercus nuttallii), not distinguished as a species until 1927, is also called red oak, Red River oak, and pin oak. It is one of the few commercially important species found on poorly drained clay flats and low bottoms of the Gulf Coastal Plain and north in the Mississippi and Red RiverValleys. The acorn or winter buds identify Nuttall oak, easily confused with pin oak (Q. palustris). The lumber is often cut and sold as red oak. In addition to producing timber, Nuttall oak is an important species for wildlife management because of heavy annual mast production.

娜塔栎(拉丁名):1927年以前并不被单独作为一个种,常被叫做红栎,红河栎或者沼生栎(针栎)。它是分布于排水不良的黏土层和低洼滨海平原和密西西比河和红河谷地区的少数几个重要商业树种之一。通过橡子或者冬天的芽识别娜塔栎,很容易和针栎(沼生栎)混淆。木材通常当做红橡木销售。除了用作木材之外,娜塔栎因为每年生产大量的橡子,同样也是野生动物经营最重要的树种。

Habitat 产地

Native Range 本土分布范围

Nuttall oak grows on bottom lands along the Gulf Coastal Plain from Florida west to southeastern Texas. North in the Mississippi Valley, it is found in Arkansas, southeastern Oklahoma, southeastern Missouri, and western Tennessee, it develops best on the alluvial bottom lands of the Mississippi River and its tributaries.

娜塔栎种植于佛罗里达西部至德克萨斯东南部的滨海平原及低洼陆地,北至密西西比河谷,也在阿肯色州俄克拉荷马及密苏里州东南部田纳西州西部有分布,在密西西比河及其支流所冲击而成的低洼平原地区分布广泛。

          
                            娜塔栎美国本土原始分布图
Climate气候
 
The climate throughout the range of Nuttall oak is humid. Rainfall is between 1270 to 1650 mm (50 to 65 in) per year; 630 to 760 mm (25 to 30 in) fall during the effective growing season, April through August. At the northern limits of the range, 2.5 to 12.5 cm (1 to 5 in) of the total precipitation falls as snow. Maximum summer temperature averages 27° C (80° F) while the winter average varies from 7° to 13° C (45° to 55° F). The extreme high and low temperatures are 43° to -26° C (110° to -15° F) (23).
娜塔栎性喜潮湿。年降雨量在1270-1650毫米(50-65英寸);四月到八月生长季降雨量630-760毫米(25-30英寸)。在其分布的北限地区,总计降雪量在2.5-12.5厘米(1-5英寸)。夏季最高平均温度为27℃(80华氏温度)冬季平均温度为7-13℃(45-55华氏温度)。极端最高温度为43℃(110度华氏温度),极端最低温度为-26℃(-15度华氏温度)。(译者注:此处为作者引用数据,因种源的关系,国内实践表明娜塔栎小苗在山东内陆地区即有冻害。我们建议临沂以南地区种植。)
 
Solis and Topography 土质和地形
 
Nuttall oak grows well on heavy, poorly drained, alluvial clay soils in the first bottoms of the Mississippi Delta region (17,24), performing best on soils with a pH of 4.5 to 5.5 (1,7). It is common on clay ridges but is not found in permanent swamps or on well-drained loam. Typically, it grows on clay flats that are normally covered with 8 to 20 cm (3 to 8 in) of water throughout the winter. The tree is less common on clay or silty clay flats and sloughs on the terrace of major streams. In the Coastal Plain, Nuttall oak grows mostly in alluvial river bottoms on sites similar to those described for the Delta (24). In general, Nuttall oak grows on soils primarily in the orders Inceptisols and Entisols.
娜塔栎在密西西比德尔塔地区的粘重、排水不良的冲击黏土生长良好。喜好PH值在4.5-5.5的酸性土壤。常见于黏土山脊上,但在常年沼泽地及排水良好的壤土地区未见分布。典型的,娜塔栎可以生长在整个冬季淹水8-20厘米(3-8英寸)黏土平地,娜塔栎在主要河流阶地的淤泥和黏土带很少见到。在滨海平原地区,娜塔栎大多生长在类似德尔塔地区的河流冲击平原尽头的位置。通常娜塔栎主要在始成土和新成土上生长。(译者注:始成土:系指湿润地区发育程度微弱、不呈现明显的淋溶淀积或极端风化作用的矿质土壤。为美国农业部土壤分类中的一个土纲新成土:是具有弱度或没有土层分化的土壤。相当于土壤发生分类中的风砂土、冲积土、粗骨土、部分紫色土、部分黄绵土。
 
Associated Forest Cover 森林伴生植被
  
Nuttall oak is a chief component of the forest cover type Sweetgum-Willow Oak (Society of American Foresters Type 92) (8). Water oak replaces willow oak (Q. phellos) in the southernmost part of the type's range. The species is found in five other types: Sugarberry-American Elm-Green Ash (Type 93), Sycamore-Sweetgum-American Elm (Type 94), Overcup Oak-Water Hickory (Type 96), Baldcypress (Type 101), and Baldcypress-Tupelo (Type 102).
娜塔栎通常是北美枫香、柳叶栎林的主要树种之一。在最南部混交氺栎替换柳叶栎林。为其它五类混交林的伴生树种:密西西比朴树-美洲榆树-洋白蜡树;悬铃木-北美枫香-美洲榆;琴叶栎-苦山核桃;落羽杉,和落羽杉-紫树。
 
Other trees associated with Nuttall oak are cedar elm (Ulmus crassifolia), laurel oak (Quercus laurifolia), bur oak (Q. macrocarpa), red and silver maple (Acer rubrum and A. saccharinum), black willow (Salix nigra), honeylocust (Gleditsia triacanthos), and persimmon (Diospyros virginiana).
 
 
硬叶榆、月桂叶栎,白栎、红枫和银槭、黑柳、三刺皂荚、美洲柿等常与娜塔栎混交。
and shrub associates are roughleaf dogwood (Cornus drummondii), hawthorn (Crataegus spp.), swamp-privet (Forestiera acuminata), buttonbush (Cephalanthus occidentalis), and water-elm (Planera aquatica) (24).
非经济林和灌木混交种有:糙叶梾木,山楂,沼生女贞,风箱树,水榆。
 
Life History 生活史
 
Reproduction and Early Growth 繁殖和早期生长
 
Flowering and Fruiting- Nuttall oak is monoecious. The male and female flowers appear in March and April at the time of leaf flushing. The male flower appears 10 to 14 days before the female flower. Male flowers are borne in clustered, yellowish-green catkins. Inconspicuous female flowers are borne in the axils of the new leaves and are found only by close examination. The flowers are wind pollinated. The acorns ripen from September to October of the second year and fall between September and February.
花和果实-娜塔栎雌雄同株。三月和四月叶子萌芽期雌花和雄花相继开放。雄花比雌花早开放10-14天。雄花葇荑花序黄绿色,大量。雌花葇荑花序较小在叶腋处,不贴近查看很难发现。风媒授粉。橡果第二年的九月到十月成熟,九月到次年二月掉落。
Seed Production and Dissemination- Young trees about 20 years old produced good seed crops for several years atStoneville, MS; this is probably the age at which optimum seed-bearing begins. In the TVA arboretum at Norris, TN, 5-year-old trees bore acorns. There are generally good seed crops every 3 or 4 years, and the average tree yields 6 to 35 kg (13 to 77 lb) of clean nuts in 9 to 53 liters (0.25 to 1.5 bushels). The nuts average 209/kg (95/lb) (27). Water, rodents, and birds disseminate the seed.
种子繁殖和散播-密西西比州的斯通维尔20年的娜塔栎树可以生产优质的橡子。20年是最适宜接橡子的树龄。在田纳西流域管理局诺里斯植物园,5年一个大年,每3-4年有一个好的橡子收成,每株树产净籽6-35公斤(13-77磅)9-53公升(0.25-1.5蒲式耳)。平均每公斤209粒。(译者注:该种子未经筛选,大大小小,我们进口的筛选后的种子通常为每公斤140-220粒。)水,啮齿动物和鸟传播种子。
Seedling Development- Nuttall oak seeds require 60 to 90 days cold stratification. They overwinter and germinate in the spring when soil temperatures are 21° to 32° C (70° to 90° F) (27). Seed germination percentages average 60 to 90 percent but germination varies by size and may be reduced by acorn weevil damage. Larger acorns had somewhat higher germination rates than smaller ones. The percent of germination was unaffected even when seeds were submerged in water for as long as 34 days (5). Germination is hypogeal (27). The best natural seedbed for most Nuttall oaks is a moist soil, covered with an inch or more of soil or leaf litter with partial shade (12).
种子育苗-娜塔栎种子需要60-90天的低温层积。过冬后地温达到21-32℃(10-90华氏温度)开始发芽。受种子大小和象鼻虫侵害影响,种子发芽率为60-90%。大粒种子的发芽率比小粒种子略高。娜塔栎种子在水中浸泡34天不影响种子发芽率。对娜塔栎来说覆盖1英寸厚的土或腐叶的潮湿的土壤是最好的苗床。
Although rodents, turkeys, deer, and hogs eat many of the seeds, natural reproduction in the bottom lands is usually abundant. Seedlings are often killed by high water during the growing season, but seedling survival, date of budbreak, or height growth are not significantly affected. When grown in saturated soil for 16 weeks in winter and spring (3), Nuttall oak seedlings become established both in the open or in shade, and can survive 5 to 10 years in the shade (15). Strong tap roots are developed (13). Mycorrhizal roots were common on seedlings growing in green-tree reservoir plots (9).
尽管啮齿动物,火鸡,鹿和猪会吃掉许多娜塔栎种子,在低地的自然繁殖仍是十分大量的。树苗经常在生长期被高水位淹死。但是萌芽期或者长高的树苗没有被侵袭仍然会幸存下来。冬春季娜塔栎苗种植在饱水土壤16周后,可以生长在光照或遮阴处,5-10年的遮阴可以幸存。断根使根系发达。储备苗基地种植的娜塔栎苗的根部常见菌根。
Vegetative Reproduction- Methods for propagating Nuttall oak from cuttings or by grafting have not been developed. When attempted, air-layering has not been successful (2). Stumps of small trees sprout readily, but those of older trees do not.
营养繁殖-娜塔栎很难用扦插或嫁接的方法繁殖,空中压条繁殖也不成功。小树苗的枝条易抽芽但是老树的枝条却不会。

Sapling and Pole Stages to Maturity 幼树、鞭条到壮年

Growth and Yield- Nuttall oak grows rapidly with a 5-year average of 4.08 m (13.4 ft) height growth and 0.006 m³ (0.2 ft³ increase in stem volume (17,18,19). Second-growth trees reach a merchantable size, 60 cm. (24 in) in d.b.h. in about 70 years. Trees 30 to 37 in (100 to 120 ft) tall and 90 cm (36 in) and larger in d.b.h. are common in old stands, but even trees of good quality degenerate rapidly soon after they mature.
种植和生产-娜塔栎种植五年平均树高4.08米(13.4英尺)茎干体积0.006立方米。小树到可以销售的60厘米胸径约需要约70年。树高30-37米(100-120英尺)胸径90厘米即达到老龄阶段,老龄树即使树的质量很高退化起来也非常的快。
A 10 cm (4 in) diameter growth in 10 years is common but 20 cm (8 in) is possible. By impounding winter and spring rainfall, radial tree growth was increased by about 38 percent as compared to that of untreated trees (6).
直径10厘米的树10年后达到20公分是正常的。受冬季囤水和春季降雨影响的树木的增长量仅为未受影响的38%。
 
On poor sites the wood of this oak is knotty, and insect damage and mineral stain are severe. Several successive years of drought and channelization of waterways may lower the water table on what normally would be good Nuttall oak sites and cause trees of all ages to die (24).
贫瘠的地方娜塔栎树干多节,受害虫和污染侵害严重。连续几年干旱或因开渠造成地下水位低于平常水平会导致不同树龄的娜塔栎死亡。
Rooting Habit- No information available.
根系习性-没有可用的信息。
Reaction to Competition- Nuttall oak is classed as intolerant of shade; seedlings survive and grow rapidly only in openings. The tree is almost always dominant or codominant (13,14,16).
Damaging Agents- Acorn weevils (Curculio spp.can reduce acorn germination by causing damage to developing acorns. The carpenterworm (Prionoxystus robinisecauses heavy damage to Nuttall oak. Other borers that cause timber defects are the red oak borer (Enaphalodes rufulus), the white oak borer (Goes tigrinus), others of the genus Goesthe oak sapling borer (G. tesselatus), and the hardwood stump borer (Stenodontes dasytomus). The clearwing borer (Paranthrene simulanscreates an entry point for rot and stain fungi, causing additional defects. Estimated loss from borer defects in oak lumber is approximately $40 million per year (25). Other borers infect twigs, branches and roots, reducing growth and vigor, but do no damage to the merchantable parts of the tree.
病虫害-象鼻虫可以损害生长中的橡树减少萌芽。毛毛虫使娜塔栎损害严重。蛀杆害虫主要有:豹纹木蠹蛾,对虎橡天牛,其他天牛,栎黄星天牛,南美硬木锯天牛。橡透翅蛾制造的创口被霉菌侵染造成额外的侵害。估计由蛀杆害虫造成的经济损失约每年4000万美金。其他枝条类的蛀虫仅仅影响橡树的生长但不会对木材造成影响。
A serious insect-caused defect in Nuttall oak lumber is bark pocket caused by the sap-feeding beetles (nitidulids) in combination with the carpenterworm and several other borers (22). Periodic outbreaks of defoliating insects such as basswood leafminer (Baliosus nervosus) and pink striped oakworm (Anisota virginiensis) retard growth rates of oaks over large geographical areas (26).
露尾甲、毛毛虫和一些天牛类蛀杆害虫联合导致娜塔栎木材夹皮损害严重。大面积的巴斯伍德潜叶虫和粉红条纹橡蠕虫的周期性爆发会使娜塔栎落叶并减缓生长。
Nuttall oak is subject to attack by three important canker rot fungi. All enter the trunk through dead branch stubs by germination of airborne spores. The cambium is killed, rough cankers are induced around the entry point, and the heartwood is decayed. The resulting cankers are calledhispidus, spiculosa, or Irpex, depending on the causal fungi-Polyporus hispidus, Poria spiculosa, and Spongipellis pachyodon respectively (21). Nuttall oak growing north of 35° latitude may be killed by oak wilt (Ceratocystis fagacearum). Daily temperatures above 30° C (86° F) reduce development of the disease (20).
娜塔栎受三种根部溃疡菌侵害。全部通过空气传播孢子到死枝或树桩侵染树干。溃疡点周围腐烂并杀死新生组织最终导致心材腐烂。粗毛黄孔菌和Spongipellis pachyodon 及Spongipellis pachyodon会导致三种不同的溃疡病。娜塔栎种植在北纬35度会被橡枯萎病杀死。日常温度高于30℃会减少疾病的发生。
Anthracnose (Gnomonia quercina) and Actinopelte leaf spot (Actinopelte dryina) cause defoliation in some years (26).
炭疽病和叶斑病会在某些年份导致落叶。
 
Special Uses 特殊应用
 
Nuttall oak is an important species in green-tree reservoirs, where ducks feed on the acorns (10). Acorns contain 13 percent crude fat and 46 percent carbohydrates (4). In Louisiana, it is considered one of the best mast-producing species. Acorn crops rarely fail (11).
娜塔栎是重要储备绿化树种,橡子包含13%的天然脂肪和46%的碳水化合物。路易斯安那是娜塔栎橡子的主产地。很少欠收。
During periods of winter flooding, squirrels find a ready supply of acorns, since many acorns remain on the tree into January. Acorns are favored by deer and also eaten by turkeys.
在冬季发大水期间,松鼠准备了充足的橡子可以吃到一月。鹿和火鸡也很喜欢吃橡子。
 
Genetics 遗传

No racial variations or hybrids have been reported. North of Memphis, TN, this tree is easily confused with Q. palustris (pin oak).
没有杂种和变种报道,田纳西州的孟菲斯以北也有人叫娜塔栎为沼生栎(针栎)。
Literature Cited 引文(略)
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